Sunday, 2 October 2011

10 things to remember

1. Frederick Griffith discovers DNA contains the genetic information through his experiment with the phenomenon he dubbed as ‘Transformation’.

2. Watson and crick discovered the DNA structure – the double helix- with the help of Rosalind’s x-ray of DNA.

3. Nucleotide are made of phosphate (negatively charged), Sugar (DNA lack one oxygen), and Nitrogenous base. Nucleoside doesn’t have phosphate.

4. A%=T%, G%=C%. A and G are purines. T and C are pyrimidine.

5. All new strand of RNA or DNA are made from 5’ --> 3’.

6. Transcription beings from the 5’ TATA 3’ box and ends with the AAUAA sequence on the RNA.

7. RNA mod #1: 5’ G cap + 3’ poly a tail protects the mRNA.

8. RNA mod #2: RNA splicing cuts out the intron with spliceosome to make sure there’s no mutation.

9. Translation beings with 5’ AUG 3’, reads codons and ends with UAA, UAG, UGA.

10. Enzymes are very important.
-Polymerase I: Proof reads the new DNA strand and replaces RNA with DNA nucleotide. (DNA replication)
-Polymerase II: Binds to TFs, untwist the double helix, reads the template strand and grabs RNA nucleotides to form pre mRNA. (Transcription)
-Polymerase III: elongate the new DNA strand by grabbing DNA nucleotides. (DNA replication)
-Primase: Makes primer to initiate elongation. (DNA replication)
-Ligase: joins gaps between Okazaki fragments. (DNA replication)
-TFs: binds to the promoter region at the initiation. (Transcription)
-Helicase: untwist DNA and splits DNA into single strand. (DNA replication)
-SSBP: stabilise single strand DNA. (DNA replication)
-Gyrase: release tension made by Helicase by splitting the DNA. (DNA replication)
-Spliceosone: cuts the introns out of the mRNA. (Transcription)

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