1. Frederick Griffith discovers DNA contains the genetic information through his experiment with the phenomenon he dubbed as ‘Transformation’.
2. Watson and crick discovered the DNA structure – the double helix- with the help of Rosalind’s x-ray of DNA.
3. Nucleotide are made of phosphate (negatively charged), Sugar (DNA lack one oxygen), and Nitrogenous base. Nucleoside doesn’t have phosphate.
4. A%=T%, G%=C%. A and G are purines. T and C are pyrimidine.
5. All new strand of RNA or DNA are made from 5’ --> 3’.
6. Transcription beings from the 5’ TATA 3’ box and ends with the AAUAA sequence on the RNA.
7. RNA mod #1: 5’ G cap + 3’ poly a tail protects the mRNA.
8. RNA mod #2: RNA splicing cuts out the intron with spliceosome to make sure there’s no mutation.
-Polymerase I: Proof reads the new DNA strand and replaces RNA with DNA nucleotide. (DNA replication)
-Polymerase II: Binds to TFs, untwist the double helix, reads the template strand and grabs RNA nucleotides to form pre mRNA. (Transcription)
-Polymerase III: elongate the new DNA strand by grabbing DNA nucleotides. (DNA replication)
-Primase: Makes primer to initiate elongation. (DNA replication)
-Ligase: joins gaps between Okazaki fragments. (DNA replication)
-TFs: binds to the promoter region at the initiation. (Transcription)
-Helicase: untwist DNA and splits DNA into single strand. (DNA replication)
-SSBP: stabilise single strand DNA. (DNA replication)
-Gyrase: release tension made by Helicase by splitting the DNA. (DNA replication)
-Spliceosone: cuts the introns out of the mRNA. (Transcription)